Revised Apr. 07, 2006
The following is a method of defining words which can be used to produce a computer generated dictionary of the English language. The method is fundamentally based on a six level theory of evolution. This is exampled by the six steps or levels by which the evolution of the aggregation of matter occurs.
Level 1 = Crystal bodies. Perfect crystal bodies possess characteristic shapes with plane faces. They precisely maintain their shape and volume against a limited amount of static or changing mechanical force so that there is no change in energy content. They are non rigid only near the breaking point. An imperfect crystal body may arise during evolution as fragilely connected perfect crystals.
Level 2 = liquids. Liquids have the quality of unlimited aggregation. Molecular forces are nearest neighbor so that the ability of a liquid to stay together can be measured by its surface tension. The energy of a liquid is proportional to the product of its surface tension and area. The viscosity of a perfect liquid is zero. The only shape level 2 takes in absence of external force is a sphere. If a liquid is forced into a nonspherical shape it returns to the spherical shape by the action of its surface tension once the forces are removed. It is always ready to draw in new material by the phenomenon of coalescence (self aggregation). If two liquid spheres are in contact there is the immediate tendency to reduce the entire nonspherical shape to a sphere. A level 2 aggregate is perfectly smooth since any projection or depression increases its energy, which is proportional to surface area, and therefore must disappear when external forces are removed.
Level 3 = viscous fluids. These are characterized by the property of viscosity. Flow of a viscous fluid at any moment is determined completely by the shear forces acting on it at that moment. The rate of shear flow is proportional to the shear stress. Perfect viscous fluids stay in the shape they have at the instant that force is removed (they have no inertia). That is, their kinetic energy is quickly dissipated by viscous flow. They can have arbitrary shape. A viscous fluid has no surface tension. Viscous fluids in contact with each other do not coalesce. Viscous fluids do not slide on each other.
Level 4 = elastic solids. Level 4 specializes in the efficient storage of static mechanical energy. Vibrations of 4 are negligible because they are quickly damped out by residual dissipation. 4 is flexed or compressed at speeds below those where dissipation becomes important. The concept of "activity" originates in level 4 -- cycling can be done without energy loss. A perfect elastic solid can be cycled through varying shapes for infinite time without net expenditure of energy. Level 4 differs from level 2 in that level 4 individuals may be of arbitrary shape under zero applied forces, although any one 4 individual can have only one such shape and volume. For example, one 4 individual may be a cube, another a sphere. The cube will always return to the cube shape upon removal of applied force, the sphere to a sphere. 4 does not act as a colliding body.
Level 5 = ballistic solids. 5 is basically a body that does not interact with the environment and does not store energy, but which possesses momentum. A body can have significant momentum without significant kinetic energy if its mass is large enough. Level 5 concerns the motion of bodies unimpeded by the environment. They are perfectly smooth. The concept of physical motion, i.e., motion changes in the environment apart from ourselves, (and physical change in general) originates in level 5. The reason is that perfect collision enables us to determine the motion of objects prior to collision from the motion after collision. Efficient collision implies that motion is not smooth. A moving 5 object may vibrate within itself as its center of mass moves, although the vibration will have zero energy. The action of 5 arises not from the kinetic energy of 5 but from the momentum of 5. The maintenance of force in absence of direct operator action is the exclusive domain of 5.
Level 6 = frictional materials. A frictional material acts tangentially on its environment. A level 6 material or entity avoids energy intake by transferring all input energy into the environment (workpiece). This results in precision performance. The energy input to a grindstone is dissipated by damaging the workpiece and not the grindstone. Ideally the level 6 body is a belt of zero thickness and zero mass which has an infinite coefficient of friction.
Breakdown of a material is always to a material of the next lower level. Level 1 breaks down (is vaporized) into unaggregated matter. Level 2 breaks down into crystalline material. Level 3 breaks down into liquids. Level 4 reaches the elastic yield point at which plastic (viscous) flow occurs. Level 5 shatters or fractures, becoming elastic. Level 6 does not break down.
3. EVOLUTION AND SPECIALIZATION
The six types of bodies 1 to 6 are unspecialized. Each of them can exhibit many behaviors and also can be of many different compositions. These bodies may be manipulated by the hands only. In this case we do not think of an environment. The specializations 3 are forced on us by the necessity for beneficial action on an environment. For example, the behavior of some 3 bodies is beneficial on 1 environments. The behavior of other 3 bodies is beneficial on 2 environments. Composition of a 3 body may also be related to its environment. There may be many different compositions of 3. In application to the environment certain 3 compositions are preferred for a 1 environment. We call these particular 3 compositions by the name 3-1. Another group of 3 compositions will be useful for a 2 environment and they will be called 3-2 compositions. Thus 3 compositions and behaviors are classified according to the environment they operate on. These are called specializations of 3, represented by letters. Thus for acting on a crystal a different type of fluid is used than when acting on a liquid or an elastic or another fluid. These are specialized fluids for particular environments. The notation 3-1 can refer to a fluid 3 specialized for use on crystals 1, or it can refer to the actual action of the specialized 3 on a crystal 1.
When we look at the word RAKE we see first the unspecialized bodies 3-6-5-6. But RAKE refers to the use of specialized 3, 6, 5, 6. The word is formed from specialized forms of 3-6-5-6 just as a plant is formed of specialized cells. Thus we can look at RAKE as being a plant. It could not function as a conglomeration of unspecialized bodies 1 to 6 just as a plant cannot function as a conglomeration of unspecialized cells. Each specialized plant cell operates on a particular type 1 to 6 of body in the environment, which it accesses. The six types of specialized plant cells are N, E, W, S, up and down for the six energy components of the environment. The specializations involve subtle difference in the cells. Mechanics is similar. Specializations of the six types of mechanical bodies are also subtle. This means that mechanics is a subtle science and that language relating to it is subtle.
Specialization is valid only for practical actions. Thus CAP for a metal cap on a glass bottle is not practical manually (it must be done by a machine) and should be excluded in the determination of the manual specialization of C, A, and P. This means it cannot be inferred that C=6-3 refers to 6 as composed of metal and 3 as composed of glass.
Language tells us the sequence of these six levels in the structure of the tools by which we operate on the environment.
A letter of the alphabet may be considered to be a pair of level devices. In the simple exposition of this article each level device may be taken as a unit of mechanical material. Thus a letter consists of two units which interact. The left (or operator) level of a letter is the control or dominant unit, the right (or environmental) level is the submissive unit.
A letter represents a "tool" which acts on an "environment". It is assumed the environment will supply an equal opposing force to the action. The tool part is stronger so that the environment part is either the loser or at most is equal. The environmental part may be destroyed or be separated off or there may not be any damage. The tool is never damaged. The entire details of what takes place are contained in the nature of the levels as given above. Thus the complete "meaning" of a letter is easily derived.
A letter is represented by an ordered pair of digits, such as 6-1 for the letter A. The left digit represents the level of the body that is operated by the person, such as 6 for A. The right digit represents the level of the environment body, such as 1 for A. The operator body and the environment body are specialized in behavior and composition. The shape is specialized also. For 6-1 the operator body has the specialized shape that is of the form A. The interacting environment body also has the specialized shape of A that is reversed as a mirror image that becomes a vacancy of 1 material reversed again to the operator A orientation. For example, the operator shape A digs out a pit in the 1 material that also has the shape A. For P=4-5 the elastic 4 causes the mass 5 to move away leaving a vacancy in 5 mass.
6. ONE SYLLABLE WORDS
Dictionaries furnish helpful information on the meanings of words. However, this information is very incomplete when one considers that full information would include every level of every letter in a word. Real understanding of what is being communicated by language requires detailed analysis using the principles of this article.
The meaning of one syllable words is obtainable as simple sequences of letter interactions. Letters rather than levels are the basic units in words. There are six types of letters, 1 to 6, which are Z, X to Y, R to W, L to Q, G to K, and A to F. The type number gives the main meaning of a letter and the second level of a letter gives the detailed meaning of the letter. Therefore the main meaning of a word is given by replacing the letters in a word by the letter types, the detailed meaning of the word is gotten by considering the second levels of the letters.
A tool is a device of size that can be handled by a person. A "tool" can be thought of as a simple sequence of units of material joined end to end. It operates on a similar size structure which may be embedded in the environment.
A simple tool is a one piece mechanical device operated on an environment by a simple reflex. Its structure and operation are such that its action on the environment is representable by a one syllable word. That is, its action consists of the sequence of letter actions of the word in the same order that they occur in the word. Tool structure is such that this sequence will take place when it is properly operated.
One syllable words of the modern English language represent the operation of mechanical tools on an environment which itself may have resulted from previous mechanical tool operation. One syllable words of the Latin language are intended to represent operation of the unaided hands on the environment.
Copyright 2006. Norman H. Smith
All rights reserved.